|Dennis Trillo, the man behind the FELIX MANALO movie, who didn't even believe him as the "Last Messenger of God in these Last Days."|
Felix Ysagun ý Manalo was born in Barrio Tipas, Taguig, Rizal province in Luzon, Philippine islands on 10th May 1886. He was born in Sitio Calzada, a hamlet some 15 kilometres southeast of Manila and along the shores of Laguna de Bay. His name Felix (which means “happy”) was chosen from the roster of saints from that month. He is the first of the two children of Mariano Ysagun and Bonifacia Manalo of Pampanga, who both belong to the Roman Catholic Church. His father was a farmworker and fisherman while his mother, Aling Pacia, was a housewife and a known manang or faithful lay member, a devotee of the patron saint, San Antonio.
In 1893, when we has seven years old, he was made to attend public school in Santa Ana, Taguig. He had an old teacher by the name Macario Ocampo, called Maestro Cario. He was taught basic literacy and fundamentals of the Catholic faith in a caton class (cathecism class). He worked as a fisherman with his father in Laguna de Bay. He also worked as a herd boy of carabaos (water buffalos) with his cousin, Modesto Ysagun. They trapped field mice whose meat was good for nourishment. He beat many other boys in a contest to determine who could stay the longest standing barefooted atop an anthill crawling with maddened red ants. Another time he prevailed in a whiplash fight that lasted for hours and made him ill for a week.
In 1896, during the Philippine Revolution against Spain, his father died, leaving him and his younger sister, Praxedes in the care of their mother. It is unknown if his father was one of the Katipuneros of Taguig, the secret meeting place of the Katipunan. His primary education was disrupted at this time.
In 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule. Sometime after this, the 12-year-old Felix and his cousin Modesto left for Manila. There he learned photography from his cousin, Serapio Ysagun, and afterwards became an apprentice to the photography studio of his uncle, Manuel Manalo. He also learned other crafts like goldsmithing, barbering and weaving buri hats. In 1899, his mother married a widower, Clemente Mozo. She bore him five children but only two survived: Fausta and Baldomero. Mozo died two months before Baldomero’s birth. This forced Bonifacia to find work in a small sawali (woven bamboo strips) factory.
The American occupation brought Protestantism in the islands. On 2 March 1899, during the Philippine-American War, Bishop James M. Thoburn of Methodist Episcopal Church delivered the first Protestant sermon in the Philippine islands. Seven months after this, on 6 September 1899, G.C.B. Randall, a religious man, distributed the first batch of Bibles in Manila. In the previous years, the Spanish friars forbid the reading of the Bible by lay people.
As a Roman Catholic
In 1899, Felix and his cousin was adopted by their uncle Mariano Borja, a Catholic priest, in an urban parish house in Sampaloc, Manila. A lover of fighting cocks, the priest not only fed and gave them quarters but told them tales of great men which doubtless inspired the two young boys to weave dreams. They helped in lighting the candles among other things. It was in that parish where Felix found a Bible left on a church bench, which he began to read. He was severely rebuked for privately studying the Bible [Reading the Bible is fine. But understanding it and interpreting it privately is dangerous to the soul at we now see in the emergence of the INC™]. Since he was living inside the parish, he attended its seminary. He was then able to compare the teachings and practices of the Catholic church with the teachings in the Bible [The teaching of the Catholic Church and the Bible aren't different. The writer is obviously a Protestant and he may had disregarded the Catholic Church's official source of teaching: SCRIPTURE and TRADITION]. He realised that basic Catholic doctrines such as baptism through infusion, worshipping graven images and making long prayers [Catholics do not worship objects. They revere or venerate images but NOT objects. The Catechism of the Catholic Church is consistent- only God is to be worshiped-- the One God in Three Divine Persons] contradicts the Bible. Doubts rise in his mind and he began to reject the old ritualistic Catholic practices. (In spite of this, he did not join the Philippine Independent Church, also known as Aglipayan Church. He learned that its doctrines were not essentially different from those of its mother church, the Roman Catholic Church). Thus, he decided to leave the Catholic Church, hence leaving also his uncle’s house and his studies in Manila. In December 1902, he went back to Tipas to help his mother twiced widowed and seven months pregnant. There in Tipas, when his relatives and townmates learned that he left his uncle’s house and stopped his studies in Manila, they rebuked his decision. When they learned that he also decided to leave the Catholic religion, they persecuted him and made lies against him, hoping through these he will change his decision. But, the sixteen year old Felix stand firm on his decision never to come back to the Catholic religion because their practices and teachings contradict the teachings written in the Bible.
As a Colorum
In April 1903, the teenage Felix got attracted to the spiritist group called Colorum, who believed that the end of the world is at hand, whose initiation rites led him on a lenten pilgrimage to the mountains of San Cristobal and Banahaw, near the town of Dolores, Tayabas (now Quezon province). The mystics offered immediate and reciprocal communication with the Supreme Being. You could ask God a question and hear His audible answer in the dark recesses of the mountain caves. He realised that the “Voice of the Almighty” emanated from an ordinary human being – a Colorum leader. He was disillusioned and went back home. He opened a sombreria, a hat shop, in Parañaque, Rizal, with his friend Eusebio Sunga.
As a Methodist
One night he and Modesto witnessed a public debate between a Catholic priest and an American Methodist pastor on the use of graven images, where the latter evidently prevailed and gained his profound interest. He then left his hat shop to find more time to study religion. He went to the office of the Methodist Episcopalian Church in Rizal Avenue, Manila and was introduced by a pastor to an American missionary. He started attending its worship services and in 1918 attended classes in the Florence B. Nicholson Seminary in Caloocan, Rizal and later became a pastor. In summer of 1905, while in a missionary work, he heard that his mother was very ill and went home to Tipas to be with her, but it was too late. He rejected the last sacrament for her. The Catholic priest denied her burial in the Tipas Catholic cemetery, and had to be buried in an Aglipayan cemetery. He stayed for a while in Tipas with his brother Baldomero and sisters Praxedes and Fausta. He then adopted his mother’s surname Manalo (which means “victor” in Tagalog) because of his great love and affection for her and because he might have wanted to have a uniform surname with his step siblings, Baldomero and Fausta.
As a Presbyterian
In 1907, he joined the Presbyterian Church and later became a pastor after attending Ellinwood Bible School. He boarded in the house of a Presbyterian couple, Esteban Aquino and Rita Bagni, who were living in the corner of Carolina and Cortabirte Streets in Malate, Manila. He became close to them, and the childless couple treated him as their own son. In 1910, he joined the Christian and Missionary Alliance, known as Disciples of Christ in the United States, where he studied at the Manila College of the Bible. It was the manner of baptising by immersion and the idea of restoring the first century church that attracted his attention. He married Tomasa Sereneo from Paco, Manila. Their son, Gerardo, died at infancy. It was alleged that his wife accused him of cruelty and adultery. (Despite of this, the pastors of the Christian Mission honoured him on 25th December 1918 as an outstanding evangelist).
As a Seventh Day Adventist
In 1908, the Seventh Day Adventist started its first missionary work in the Philippine islands with the arrival of L.V. Finster, an elder and a pastor. It was only on 3 March 1911 that it conducted its first baptism which was held by the Pasig River, near Punta Santa Ana, Manila, officiated by I.H. Evans, then president of the Asiatic Division. In the same year, Felix attended a meeting to debate Finster on his stance that Christians are under the Mosaic Law. Felix was very aggressive in his questioning. He had a long list of questions, but after Finster had successfully answered them one by one, Manalo manfully said, “You know, that man is right!” Manalo continued his studies with Finster for 7 months. After this indoctrination, he joined the church. He was invited by Mr. [E.M?] Adams, an American missionary, and started attending the Adventist gatherings. He soon became a pastor. His wife Tomasa was afflicted with tuberculosis and died. He moved to Santa Cruz, Manila still actively preaching the teachings of Adventists. There he met Honorata de Guzman, a petite young girl of 19, already an SDA member and a student in his Bible class. They fell in love with each other and were eventually married on 9th May 1913, a ceremony officiated by Christian and Missionary Alliance pastor, Emiliano Quijano in Singalong, Manila. It was alleged that he eloped with her, and that E.M. Adams, the missionary who replaced Finster, did not approve their marriage. This makes sense since a Christian Missionary pastor officiated the wedding instead of SDA as purported by Liwanag magazine. The couple then proceeded to Malolos, Bulacan where Manalo was assigned. They were both active in the activities of their church, Felix as a pastor and Honorata, a deaconess. He pondered on the church’s persistent observance of Sabbath and he found it unscriptural. He also had an issue with customary authority relationships between Westerners and Filipinos. According to Adventist sources, Manalo was twiced disciplined. First, he was temporarily suspended because of his elopement. The second time he was disciplined for moral indiscretion. As Adam comments, “Naturally he became our worst enemy in the Philippines.”. This is probably the reason why he started finding faults in the organisation. In June 1913, he told his wife that he is going to preach on his own and he is going to convince his fellow Adventist pastors and pastors of other denominations that they unite to preach with him. Felix made an attempt to convince his fellow Adventist pastors and pastors of other sects but they rejected this plan and mocked him and called him names. After an intense debate with fellow pastors in conference held in Malolos, Bulacan, he decided to leave the SDA. He went back in Manila with his wife.
He temporarily stayed with his cousins in Singalong, Manila. Then his friend Eusebio Sunga asked him to manage again the hat store he left in 1904. He went to Paranaque and manage again the hat store he established in 1903. He transferred the hat shop and residence to Pasay and also opened a barber shop. At this time he was frequently visited by his former colleagues in the SDA who tried to convince him back to SDA but was not convinced. He familiarized himself with atheism and agnosticism. He debated with atheists and agnostics in his barber shop but then he believes they are false and irrational as well. He believes that wrong interpretations of the Bible are the cause their disbelief and the diversity of religions.
Founding Iglesia ni Kristo
On November 1913, he secluded himself with religious literature and unused notebooks in his friends’ house, Eusebio Sunga [and Tereso?], in Pasay, instructing everyone in the house not to disturb him. He did not eat and drink for two days and three nights. He emerged from seclusion with his new-found doctrines.
Iglesia ni Cristo's first chapel in Punta, Santa Ana, Manila.
In the same month, he and his wife left their home and headed to Punta, Santa Ana, Manila through the Pasig river to begin preaching where their former brethren in Disciples of Christ lived. A boatman ferried them across without the two centavo fare, but Manalo promised to pay him later. He started with four or five listeners in a small room of Apolinario and Engracia Ramos at the workers’ quarters of Atlantic Gulf and Pacific Company of Manila Incorporated (AG & P), a construction company. He preached against gambling and drinking. He attacked the doctrines of the Catholic church, and the Sabbatarian doctrines of the Seventh Day Adventists. Other topics included, "Body, Soul and Spirit," "New Heavens and a New Earth," and "Where are the Dead?" As the listeners began to grow in number the nightly religious meetings moved out in the open. Everyone calls him as Ka Vernakulo because he was the only one who always refer to the Bible to answer their questions. After several nights of preaching, the first converts were baptised at the Sta. Ana portion of the Pasig River in the early morning of late 1913. To ensure privacy, the baptismal area was enclosed with white cloth held up by bamboo poles. Before him, in waist deep water, he urged each of them to raise their hands, state their allegiance to God, Christ and the Bible, and reaffirm their loyalty to their new found faith. Then he immersed them one by one in the clear river water "in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit". The first batch of converts was composed of 14 people: (1) Barbara Cordero, (2) Juan de la Cruz, (3) Juana de la Cruz, (4) Maximano Diosenito, (5) Remigia Guevarra, (6) Pedro Inocencio, (7) Federico Inocencio, (8) Tomas Inocencio, (9) Emilia de Leon, (10) Felicimo de Leon, (11) Estanislao Mangilit, (12) Engracia Ramos, (13) Gorgonio Sta. Maria and (14) Eugenia Yuzon. Because many of those who entered the church during that time came fromthe Disciples of Christ, an American missionary of the said sect was sent to Felix in Punta Santa Ana. He made an attempt to convince Felix to return to their sect and he offered a large amount of money. However, Felix anwered him that he will return if they will preach that his church is the true church. The American replied, “I cannot do that, I was only sent here to convince you to return to our fold”. Then Felix replied, “I cannot go against my consience”. The American told him, “Your work will be in vain. You dont have anything. You will only suffer hardships”. Felix replied, “I entrust my fate to the Lord God”.
On 10th March 1914, his first child and daughter was born, Pilar (which means “pillar”). The Holy Supper was held in the larger house of Atanacio Morte. A few months later, the church in Punta gained more converts and Manalo decided to propagate the church in other places. He left the church in the care of Federico Inocencio, later to be ordained minister and Atanacio Morte, the head deacon. He went to Tipas with his wife and infant daughter, Pilar, to bring his message of salvation to his hometown neighbours. He met stiff persecutions by his neighbours – they threw stones on the roof and destroyed the benches outside the house where he was officiating. People mocked and ridiculed them. Yet some of the detractors were later converted, one of these were Serapio Dionisio. One day (or evening), the people brought a Protestant pastor to debate with Felix. His name is Reverend Emmanuel Tanco of Malabon, who is a skilled debater and have beaten a Catholic and an Agplipayan priest. He bragged to be a Doctor of Philosophy and Letters. He ask for Felix’s qualification but Felix replied quoting 1 Corinthians 1:19 that God will destroy the wisdom of the wise and will put to nothing the understanding of the prudent. He forced Felix to write the topic of debate because he was informed that Felix does not know how to write. The topic was: Christ is a man even when he ascended to heaven. Felix wrote the topic of the debate. It was read by the moderator and the pastor was surprised. The pastor also asserted that no human being prior to Jesus has ascended in heaven, but Felix proved him wrong by quoting 2 Kings 2:9-12 that Elijah ascended in a whirlwind into heaven. Soon afterwards the locale of Tipas was establshed.
Protestant pastors, aiming to stop the work of Manalo, threathened him and the members that they will sue them in court because of preaching a Colorum church because it is not registered. During that time there was a law that any organization must be registered in the government because there were religious groups, the Colorums, staging rebellion against the government. On 27th July 1914 the Iglesia ni Kristo was officially registered with the Bureau of Commerce of the Philippine government as a corporation sole with Felix Y. Manalo as the Executive Minister. [And FOUNDER!] This type of religious incorporation was purposely drafted to have one-man control. This was done by the help of his lawyer friend, Juan Natividad, who was adamant before helping him. The following day, on 28th July 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia that marked the beginning of the First World War.
At this time, he converted three Protestant pastors: Justino Casanova, pastor of the Christian and Missionary Alliance, and Norbeto Asuncion and Victor Magsalin. The first two became ministers of the church.A few months later, he started his work of propagation in Pateros and Pasig.
In 1915, a central office was established in Deodato Street, Tondo, Manila. (In 1917, it was moved to Sande Road and remained there until 1921). In late 1915, his work of propagation reached Tondo, Manila. (Still working as a tradesman, he was preaching in a storage house. Not long, he moved to an open air market in sight of a Methodist hospital). The lessons Manalo imparted to his students and congregations were uniform and prepared by himself. The ministers were given outlines. To facilitate reproduction of outlines, he devised a novel copying method using a crude gulaman or gelatin press which Honorata operated. It was a labour consuming process. In 1916, Marcelo Lemen, a Tondo religious worker employed in a printing house, suggested that the lessons be reproduced in printed form. Manalo agreed and the first printed lessons or texto came out on 26th March 1916. He sent three ministers - Justino Casanova, Santiago Lopez and Teodoro Santiago - to Guiguinto, Bulacan. Thirty new members were baptized and a congregation was established in Barrio Tabi. When the membership reached 80, the members built a small chapel. On 7th February 1917, his second child and daughter was born, Avelina (which means “ability”). He visited Nueva Ecija, accompanied by Teodoro Santiago and Januario Ponce. A congregation was later formed in Gapan. In 1918, the Pagsamba ng Kabataan (Children’s Worship Service) was established, which is based on question and answer form like catechism. He sent ministers to Pampanga and congregations were established in Bacolor, Arayat, Guagua, San Simon and Lubao. A new locale was established in Malabon, Rizal, with over 30 new converts, led by Justino Casanova. The first chapel was built (near the railroad tracks) in Gabriela Street in Tondo, Manila, fashioned out of sawali, nipa and wood. (This was strategic to get workers off the railroad. That lasted 10 years until a fire destroyed much of the village and burned the bamboo hut. He continued to preach near the tracks because of the constant flow of railroad users. His new ministers would get on the job training as they would go to his nightly meetings. He would give them new doctrines to preach and then the new ministers would buy 3rd class train tickets to preach to travelers going home for the weekend hoping their teachings would spread to their families).
He also conducted Bible classes for the ministry, called Ang Klase (The Class), in Tondo in the house of a member, Leoncio Javier. The first batch of ministerial students was: (1) Justino Casanova, (2) Norberto Asuncion, (3) Norberto Cruz, (4) Federico Inocencio, (5) Marcelo Lemen, (6) Sancho de Guzman, (7) Teodoro Santiago, (8) Santiago Lopez, (9) Teofilo Ora, (10) Januario Ponce, (11) Basilio Santiago, (12) Quirino Santos and (13) Benito Simbillo. The first three ministers were ordained in May 1919, namely Justino Casanova, Teodoro Santiago and Federico Inocencio. They were assigned to pioneer in the work of propagating the church in the areas surrounding Manila.
On 11th November 1918 a ceasefire came into effect in Europe that marked the end of the First World War. The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28th June 1919.
(By 1919, membership had grown to 1,500).
(The difficult task of defending the church against increasing attacks convinced Felix Manalo that he needed further training in the United States. Also the matter of prestige may have been an important consideration in this decision, for as study in Germany was often looked on as the required finishing touch for an American scholar, so in the Philippines, study in the United States usually establish a person as an authority in his chosen field). In September 1919 it was said that Manalo travelled to the United States to study in Pacific School of Religion in California in Berkeley, California. However, the school’s registrar denied this. It is also unknown what qualification he obtained. (While he was abroad Manalo collected many religious book, encyclopedias, and different versions of the Bible which later adorned his office. He was to put these volumes to good use in his debates with his opponents through the years. It is believed that Manalo was learning his theology from other preachers parked at railroad cars. It is also believed that Manalo was trying to convert migrant Filipino workers but was unsuccessful because they were Ilocanos who did not understand Tagalog. His trip was paid for by INC).
[FELIX Y. MANALO DECLARED HIMSELF AS THE "LAST MESSENGER" only in 1922]
On 9th March 1920, his third child and first son was born, Dominador (which means “dominant”). He returned to the Philippines in 1921. In 1922, he was accused of extravagance and immorality that resulted in a schism led by Teofilo Ora, Januario Ponce and Basilio Santiago and the loss of some followers. (These church workers have been left out in 1919 ordination). It resulted in the loss of several congregations and their church buildings in Bulacan and Nueva Ecija. In Bulacan, the membership went down from 80 to a mere 15 members. According to Pasugo of May/June 1986, “Manalo acted decisively and called an emergency meeting of all ministers in the Central office in Gagalangin, Tondo, with Justino Casanova presiding. Manalo defended himself by belying the charges and presenting supporting documents. Then in a division of the house, he won decisively”. Ora and Ponce then founded Iglesia Verdadero de Cristo (The True Church of Christ) which was later changed to Iglesia ng Dios kay Kristo Hesus (Church of God in Christ Jesus). Nicolas Perez, a former INC, became one of Ora’s preachers in Maragondon, Cavite. After being a minister for six years, Perez maneuvered and wrestled the church leadership from Ora. Perez won the power struggle. Several of those who resisted Perez’ leadership left the group and founded their own sect. Ponciano Bungay established the Iglesia ni Cristo sa Ibabaw ng Bato (Church of Christ on a Rock) in 1932, while Basilio Santiago built the Church of God in Christ Jesus in 1949 while Salvador Payawal began his as Kabanal-banalang Iglesia ng Diyos (Most Holy Church of God). A year later, Ora was able to re-establish his leadership. Perez and Avelino Santiago left Ora and established the group Iglesia ng Diyos Kay Kristo Hesus, Haligi at Suhay ng Katotohanan (Church of God in Christ Jesus, Pillar and Support of the Truth).
It was in 1922 that Manalo declared himself to be the “fifth angel” or “another angel rising in the east” as mentioned in Revelation 7:2. He developed this doctrine in order to accumulate power and reassert his leadership in the church.
On 5th December 1922, his fourth child and second son was born, Salvador (which means “saviour”). By 1924, the church had about 3,000 to 5,000 members in 43 or 45 congregations in Manila and six nearby provinces. On 2nd January 1925, his fifth child and third son was born, Eraño (which means “new era”). In 1928, he instituted the first komite or pulong-panalangin (committee prayer). It was only after 1930 that he denied Christ’s pre-existence. The Genius Divinical College of Manila on Avenida, Rizal, a non-sectarian institution headed by Eugenio Guerero, conferred on him the degree of Master of Biblo-Science honoris causa on 28th March 1931. This was in recognition of the rapid growth of Iglesia ni Kristo. By 1936, the church had 85,000 members. Tambuli ng Silangan (Trumpet of the East) – a Christian family organization for the young members, was established. On 28th August 1935, his sixth and fourth son was born, Bienvenido (which means “welcome”). On 15th September1935, during the first election for the officials of the Commonwealth government of the Philippines, the church members cast their votes in unity in favour of Manuel L. Quezon. In 1937, the first hymnbook, termed as Himnario, which contained about 300 songs, was published. The church began propagating in the Visayas when he sent Alipio Apolonio to pioneer in preaching the church in Cebu.
On 25 July 1938, a circular was issued signed by Teodoro Santiago (one of the thirteen students during Manalo’s first batch of ministerial class; one of the three ministers ordained during the first ordination presided by Manalo; the first division minister/administrator, who was assigned in Pampanga division in 1924). It states there that Manalo wanted to leave the Church and start anew. This is due to fraud among his ministers and officers. Santiago chose to plead to Manalo and advised the members to write a letter promising that they will keep and embrace all the policies of the Church.
He made his second trip to the United States in August 1938 at the invitation of the Christian Alliance Society, with his secretary Cirilo Gonzales. He accepted the opportunity to deliver speeches abroad at their invitation because it would also enable him to undergo treatment of a stomach ailment. According to Pasugo, July 1964 page 182, “the secretary was to act as interpreter for the executive minister, who was supposed to deliver a series of lectures in Indiana. Thus did the religious leader hope to raise funds for a main chapel of the Iglesia ni Cristo.” He was able to comply with some speaking engagements but unable to undergo treatment for when he fell ill he instructed his secretary to bring him back immediately to the Philippines. Arriving in Manila after four months in the United States, he was welcomed at Pier 7 by thousands of church members.
The August 1939 issue of Pasugo
In 21st February1939, the first issue of Pasugo magazine was published with Felix Y. Manalo as its editor-in-chief. It aimed to explain the doctrines and activities of the church. (Publication temporarily stopped during World War II and reappeared in January 1951).
In 1939, he was accused of rape by Rosita Trillanes, along with two ministers and an employee of the church, in a letter shown to church members. To counter this, he filed a libel case and won in the Court of First Instance on January 1941.
During World War II
On 1st September 1939, Germany launched a sudden attack on Poland, in contravention of Treaty of Versailles of 1919, that marked the beginning of Second World War. On 7th December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army, launched a sudden attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, United States and the following day launched an attack on the Philippine islands. He continued holding worship services and missionary campaigns and attending to the spiritual needs of its members during the occupation of Japanese forces in the Philippines. Japanese soldiers disrupted a service in Tayuman, Santa Cruz, Manila but failed to stop him from officiating. He later helped the resistance movement by serving as an information officer and giving them money, food and clothing. Unable to find direct evidence against his underground activities, the Japanese confiscated his properties. He consolidated all congregations in the Greater Manila Area into one division under the supervision of division minister Benjamin Santiago. Then he sent Cipriano Sandoval to Baguio to start propagation work. The church reached out to Mindanao in 1941 with about 30 INC families from Paco, Manila as pioneers. They settled in Cotabato and began evangelisation. In 1942 he consolidated all choir units by assigning Pilar Manalo as the Head Choir Directress. On 29 June 1942, Prudencio Vasquez presided over INC at the command of the Japanese.
“Evangelical Mission” was called in the past as “Evangelical Rally”
In the early years of the church on worship services, the females are seated in the left side and the males in the right side.
In the Japanese occupation, FYM was kidnapped by the japanese, they wanted him to rule over all religions in the country or he will be the only one pastor of the different religions as they wanted to control religions in Philippines but he refused to do so.
The ministers are killed or massacred while they are in their “klase” or meeting classes, the ministers who hold the bible was chased by the japanese and suspected that they were enemies, they were forced to dig and in that place they are killed.
The logo of the INC at the time of FYM was not the same as the official INC logo.
On July 1942, Rosita Trillanes appealed in the Court of Appeal and won. The Japanese-sponsored court declared him un hombre de baja moral (a man of low moral). (However in 7th November1952, she filed a retraction declaring everything that was said in the letter was false. She apologised in front of him, together with her husband, and asked for apology and reacceptance in the church. Since the 1960’s she served as a deaconess for the rest of her life).
After World War II
On 15 August 1945, the Japanese Imperial Army withdrew its forces from Asia that marked the end of Second World War. He resumed his mission in Northern Luzon. On a vacation in Pampanga, he heard that the Huks would ambush him in the town of San Antonio, Lubao. On the way to the service, however, he slipped on a stairway and suffered a fractured leg. The ambush was aborted. The Huks were after him because they believed he was an obstacle in their plan to seize government power since he refused to co-operate with them. During the presidential election the church supported Manuel Roxas while the Huks campaigned for Sergio Osmeña Sr. This led the Huks kidnapping and liquidating church ministers, workers and members. As a result, several members fled from Central Luzon to seek sanctuary in places where there were church congregations.
(Files were destroyed during the war, and when it came time for reconstitution, the name was official changed to "Iglesia ni Cristo". The SEC did not question this change. This was a move by Manalo to not do the proper paperwork for the name change. If he had, it would have alerted the original Church of Christ [the Christian Mission] and they would have been able to object to the name change. But, it should be noted, that as early as the early 1920s, Manalo was using Iglesia ni Cristo. One member stated that the reason for the change from K to C was that the C stands for corporation, but everyone who knew Iglesia ni Cristo knew that was obviously not the case).
In 1947, he sent evangelical workers to the Bicol region. On 10 May 1947, Eraño G. Manalo was ordained as a minister at the age of 22. 1948, the church began to build its central office and official residence of the Executive Minister at Riverside Street in San Juan, Rizal. The grand complex was designed by Architect Juan Nakpil. Meanwhile, the Huks tried again to assassinate Manalo but failed. In 1948, the first concrete chapel was built in Washington, Sampaloc, Manila.
In 1951, the church entered Abra in the North. On 17 March 1952, the locale of Riverside was dedicated. On 1 April 1952, the Huks assigned two women in disguise to assasinate Felix while he was officiating a worship service in Riverside (now F. Manalo), San Juan, but became extremely nervous and voluntarily surrendered to the Philippine Constabulary. In 1953, three modern cathedral-size chapels rode up in Cubao, Quezon City, Caloocan City and Syquia, Santa Ana, Manila. In 23rd January 1953 he summoned all division ministers and senior officials of the church after their regular ministerial meeting to a special conference. He announced that when his time comes, there must be someone to take his place. At 2 p.m, the meeting proceeded with himself presiding. The voting was held: Eraño G. Manalo, Isaias Samson and Isaias Reyes were nominated. Samson obtained two votes, while Eraño obtained all of the remaining votes and was proclaimed as the future Executive Minister. The body then elected Eraño’s would-be assistants: Teofilo C. Ramos and Cipriano Sandoval.
By 1954, membership grew to 200,000.
On 17 January 1955 Eraño G. Manalo married Cristina Villanueva. On 17th August 1955 Felix went to the United States, accompanied by his son Eraño and nurse, Librada Enriquez. A huge crowd, led by Ramon Magsaysay, bid him goodbye. In Baltimore, Maryland, they stayed in a hotel near the John Hopkins Hospital where he would seek treatment. But then he changed his mind and decided to proceed to New York, and entered the Presbyterian Medical Center on 2nd September 1955. The doctors who examined him advised surgery of the stomach after curing his diabetes. On 9th September, he was successfully operated on for ulcers. A month later they returned to Manila and was welcomed by a huge crowd led by Ramon Magsaysay. On 31st October 1955, his first grandson and eldest child of Eraño was born, Eduardo Villanueva Manalo. On 1 April 1955, INC members were prompted to resign from the United Luisita Workers’ Union (NLU) in Hacienda Luisita of the Cojuangco-Aquino family in Tarlac.
In December 1962, Buklod ng Gintong Layunin (now Buklod), the Christian Family Organization for married members of the church, was established, with Eraño Manalo as adviser.
Death of Felix Y. Manalo
On February 1963, Felix fell very ill. He was rushed to St. Luke’s Veteran Memorial Hospital in Quezon City where doctors decided to immediately remove an intestinal obstruction. He rejected the surgery. On 21st March 1963, he became completely incapacitated and was transferred to Veterans Memorial Hospital. Doctors operated on him but failed to give him relief from pain.
On 2nd April 1963, he was confined to treat his intestines which had burst and hemorrhaged. He had stomach ulcers which brought him constant pain that even medication did not help. On 11th April, doctors performed the third and last surgery on him.
On 12th April 1963 at 2:35 a.m, at the age of 76, Felix Ysagun Manalo breathe his last.
Many members mourned his death at the San Juan Chapel. The body was transferred to the new cathedral-chapel in San Francisco del Monte, Quezon City. On 23rd April 1963, according to his will, his body was interred in the pagoda housing his office and private study below the Executive Minister’s residence in San Juan, Rizal.
Within the span of 49 years of his administration, the church had built1,250 local chapels and 35 large concrete cathedrals. The leadership of the church was passed on to his son, Eraño de Guzman Manalo.
[JUDAS ISCARIOT and MARTIN LUTHER died with burst intestines and hemorrhaged!]
 Saint Felix of Cantalice, Italy, born on 18th May 1515.
 Pasugo 1986
 According to Liwanag Illustrated Magazine page 3, Felix has been working in the photography shop when his father passed away.
 Gregorio F. Zaide and Sonia M. Zaide, Kasaysayan ng Republika ng Pilipinas, College Edition 1989 page 433.
 Pasugo 1986 edition.
 Robert R. Reed, The Iglesia ni Cristo, 1914-2000: From obscure Philippine faith to global belief system, p. 566
 The Iglesia ni Cristo Blogspot
 An independent church established by Gregorio Aglipay in 1902 in separation from the Roman Catholic Church because of mistreatment of Filipinos by Catholic priests and the execution of nationalist Jose Rizal.
 Some extreme church detractors put this event when he was an adult (27 years old), between the time when he resigned as an SDA minister and the time when he first established his own. It was alleged that Felix got tired of organized religions and turned to mysticism. However, this is unlikely because of the short period of time between these two periods, he was newly married and has just returned to his business.
 Founded in 1832 by Apolonio (“Hermano Pule”) dela Cruz as Cofradia de San Jose (Confraternity of Saint Joseph). Condemned as heretical by the Franciscan Order and therefore unrecognized by the Spanish government, it nevertheless attracted several adherents because it claimed direct communication with God (Pasugo 1986). The Colorums, which might be fairly portrayed as kaleidoscopically changing amalgams of folk traditions, spiritualism, hero-worship and selected elements of Catholicism, were born of harsh Hispanic rule and were sometimes associated with popular uprisings during the late Spanish and early American periods. These diminutive belief systems typically drew followers from a downtrodden peasantry. They often crystallized around individuals who vehemently opposed the foreign political and religious officialdoms seated in colonial Manila and sometimes harboured charlatans who claimed supernatural powers, frequently utilizing pilgrimages to sacred springs, mountain retreats or hidden caves to attract and socialize religious recruits (From Reed 2000:567 quoting from Agoncillo 1956:194-6; Constantino 1975:136, 350-6; Tuggy 1976:22-4; Ileto 1979: 93-7,148-9,205-6, 229-38, 255, 298-300).
 Some extreme church detractors alleged that Felix was an acolyte of Florencio Natividad (Flor de Entrencherado), a colorum from Ilo-Ilo, Panay, who declared himself Emperor of the Philippines in 1925, claiming that his powers were derived directly from Jose Rizal, as well as the martyr Father Jose Burgos and the Holy Ghost. However, this is unlikely as there were no reported activities of Florencio in Luzon.
 The Methodist Episcopal Mission instituted the Florence B. Nicholson Bible Seminary on 11th October 1905 in Manila. The president of the seminary was Dr. Harry Farmer. In 1906, a seminary was established in Dagupan, Pangasinan. The following year, the classes in Dagupan were transferred to Manila eventually after acquiring a property in Caloocan (which was then part of Rizal).
 It was his sister Fausta who testified this. (Felix Manalo: The Man and His Mission by Dolores G. Garcia, Pasugo, 50th anniversary of INC edition; also in 1986 Pasugo)
 Some church detractors (Kavanagh, a Catholic priest) alleged that Felix only changed his surname to Manalo when he established the INC. However, the people of Tipas only thought of this because he was not there in his hometown for a long time. In a newspaper of Christian Mission, it mentioned FYM. When he married Tomasa her name changed to Tomasa Manalo. In 1911, when the first congregation of the SDA in the Philippines was established, the list of members included FYM and Tomasa S. Manalo.
 Founded in 1905 by Rev. Dr. Francis F. Ellinwood, Secretary General of the Presbyterian Mission Board during that time. Florence B. Nicholson Seminary merged with Ellinwood Bible School to become Union Bible Seminary in 1907. The official name was changed to Union Theological Seminary in 1920.
 Esteban Aquino died a Methodist, while Rita Bagni, who lived longer, joined the INC later on.
 Some extreme church detractors alleged that Felix also joined the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) of the Anglican Church. However, there is no proof to support this.
 Some sources 1986 Pasugo, Teresa.
 See the original letter of reply by Leslie Wolfe of the Philippine Mission Church of Christ to Salvador Laspinas dated 14th October 1933. See also the affidavit made by Tomasa Geronimo dated 29th December 1921.
 The certificate was signed by Ministers Leslie Wolfe and Higinio Mayor, attested by Attorney V. Dimagiba. The affair was held at the Cine Gloria (Gloria Theater) in no. 1649 Sande Street, Pritil, Tondo, Manila at 8 a.m. and attended by church members and protestant pastors. Some church detractors alleged that Felix was ordained at this time, and they have proof to support this. However, how could he be ordained by other people when he has his own organisation already.
 Consuelo R. Jackson, The Gift of Choice: The Lives and Times of Leon Z. Roda and Alfonso P. Roda, page 23.
 Arthur Leonard Tuggy, Iglesia ni Cristo: A Study of Independent Church Dynamics, page 32.
 See Pasugo Yearbook 1964
 Arthur Leonard Tuggy, Iglesia ni Cristo: A Study of Independent Church Dynamics, page 33.
 Liwanag Illustrated Magazine, page 13
 Robert R. Reed, The Iglesia ni Cristo, 1914-2000: From obscure Philippine faith to global belief system, p. 567
 Santa Romana 1955:332-3; Tuggy 1976:30-3
 Arthur Leonard Tuggy, Iglesia ni Cristo: A Study of Independent Church Dynamics, page 34.
 The barrio of Punta Santa Ana lies at the confluence of the Pasig and San Juan Rivers.
 According to Pasugo July 1964 page 181 and Liwanag Illustrated Magazine page 23, the first baptism occurred in an early month of 1914. However, since the INC celebrated their 5th year anniversary in 25th December 1918 (see supporting documentation), therefore the first baptism probably occurred in December 1913.
 There were 12 converts according to July 1964 Pasugo page 181, while 13 converts according to October/December 1994 Pasugo page 10.
 Liwanag Illustrated Magazine page 26 and Felix Y. Manalo ang Sugo ng Diyos sa Huling Araw movie (old).
 The church’s first general treasurer
 Ross Tipon, The Power and The Glory: Cult of Manalo
 Ross Tipon, The Power and The Glory: Cult of Manalo
 Ross Tipon, The Power and The Glory: Cult of Manalo
 Anne C. Harper, The Iglesia ni Cristo.
 Opinion of Leonard Tuggy.
 See the email by Cheryl M. Heuer, registrar and assistant to dean of Pacific School of Religion, dated 17th November 1997 and 3rd March 2000. See also the email by Eileen M. Weston, assistant to the President of Pacific School of Religion , dated 18th September 2002.
 Opinion of Leonard Tuggy.
 Ross Tipon, The Power and The Glory: Cult of Manalo
 Santa Romana (1955:381-5), Gumban (1968:41), Fabian(1969:7-8), Sanders (1969:353-5) and Tuggy (1976:57-9,116-9)
 Pampanga became the first division (now called ecclesiastical district) in 1924 with Teodoro Santiago as the first division minister or administrator. Next came Tarlac (1925) under Reymundo Mansilungan; Laguna (1928) with Andres Tucker as first division minister; Nueva Ecija (1930) administered by Prudencio Vasquez; Zambales (1931) under Benito Simbillo; Bulacan (1932) under Jacinto Torres; Cavite followed (1932) administered by Feliciano Gonzales. Then Pangasinan (1934) under Placido Pascua. Batangas (1936) with Eugenio Cortes as first division minister; Tayabas (now Quezon), became a division in 1913(?) under Glicerio Santos Sr. La Union became a division in 1943, with Felimon Sanidad as first division minister. Cebu became a division in 1937, with Alipio Apolonio as first division minister. Bohol, reached in 1938, became a Division in 1955 under Antonio Jerusalem. The Ilocos Norte Division was formed in 1938, administered by Placido Pascua. Rizal became a division in 1939, with Telesforo S. Cruz as its first division minister. Isabela in the North became a division in 1947, under Felix Suratos. Mindoro Oriental became a division in 1940 under Mariano Castro. Baguio became a division in 1956 under the administration of Ramon Adalla. In 1946, Cotabato became a division under Mariano Suarez. Albay became a division in 1948 under Prudencio Vasquez. Camarines Norte came next, in 1948. Evangelization began in Camarines Sur in 1947, though it became a division only in 1964 under Mario Rejuso. Work in Sorsogon began in 1948; the province was made a division in 1951, again with Mario Rejuso as the first division minister. Abra became a division in 1951, administered by Melencio Torres. He made Cagayan a division in 1947 with Jose Nisperos as first division minister and Ilocos Sur (1948) a division under Felimon Sanidad. In 1949, he made Marinduque a division with Pablo de Leon as division minister. Leyte became a division that year with Felix Ortiz as first division minister, Mindoro Occidental, under Pedro D. Almedina. Davao was made a division in 1953, administered by Antonio Jerusalem, as well as Lanao, with Rufino Pangan as first division minister. Manalo made Catanduanes a division after the first baptism was held there in April 1950 under Jose San Esteban. He converted Masbate into a division in 1951 with Jerusaleo Vasquez as first division minister; Capiz in 1954, administered by Gregorio Earnshaw. Negros Oriental also became a division in 1950, under Filemon P. Bautista; and Samar in 1955 administered by Teofilo Bernardino. Zamboanga del Sur (Pagadian), where evangelization began in 1950 was made a division in 1962 with Remias Reformado as first division minister. Angel B. Canicosa was the first division minister of Romblon (1951). Misamis Oriental became a division in 1954 under the administration of Samuel Gaña; and Surigao in 1947 under Perfecto S. Padilla. At about the same time Palawan became a division administered by Pablo de Leon. Ipil, Zamboanga del Sur, was also made a division on 1960 administrated by Honorio Castro.
 Reymundo Mansilungan was a former minister, Cirilo Gonzales a former minister and general secretary, Teodoro Briones a former editor of the Pasugo and Rosita a former clerk in the Central Office.
 See the letter signed by Rosita Trillanes that was presented to church members in 1939.
 See the court’s decision in 1941.
 Pasugo, October 1965 page 21.
 See the court’s decision in 1942.
 See Rosita Trillanes’s retraction dated 7th November 1952.
 Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon (English: The Nation's Army Against the Japanese) is an anti-Japanese guerilla movement formed by the peasant farmers of Central Luzon, Philippines.
 Ross Tipon, The Power and The Glory: Cult of Manalo
 Juan F. Nakpil (1899–1986) was a Filipino architect, teacher and a community leader. In 1973, he was named one of the National Artists for architecture, and tapped as the Dean of Filipino Architects.
 In 1954, chapels were built in Baclaran, Pasay, 1955 in Baguio City, 1956 in Angeles, Pampanga and Artacho, Pangasinan. In 1957 - Paco, Manila; Tipas, Taguig, Rizal; San Jose, Mindoro; Arayat, Pampanga; Cabanatuan City; Bacoor, Cavite; Orani, Bataan; Salinas, Cavite; and Balintawak, Quezon City. Soon, chapels were also built in Tarlac; Malabon, Rizal; Lucena, Quezon; Naujan, Mindoro; Bel-Air, Makati; Daet, Camarines Norte. In 1962, San Francisco del Monte, Quezon City; Cavite City; Concepcion, Tarlac; Hagonoy, Bulacan; Naga City; Mapalad, Pampanga; Sto. Domingo, Nueva Ecija; Grace Park, Caloocan City and Apalit, Pampanga.