"The Christianity of history is not Protestantism. If ever there were a safe truth it is this, and Protestantism has ever felt it so; to be deep in history is to cease to be a Protestant." (-John Henry Newman, An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine).

"Where the bishop is, there let the people gather; just as where ever Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church". -St. Ignatius of Antioch (ca 110 AD)a martyr later thrown to the lions, wrote to a church in Asia Minor. Antioch was also where the term "Christian" was first used.

“But if I should be delayed, you should know how to behave in the household of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and foundation of truth.” 1 Timothy 3:15

"This is the sole Church of Christ, which in the Creed we profess to be one, holy, catholic and apostolic." -CCC 811

Friday, April 4, 2014

The 21 Ecumenical Councils and their Chief Doctrines

The Second Vatican Council (Photo Courtesy of Catholics On Call
From it's more than 2,000 year existence of the CHURCH, so far she has 21 Ecumenical Councils often overlooked by quasi-christian churches and cults such as the fake Iglesia ni Cristo (Registered Trademark) founded by Felix Manalo in the Philippines. Here are the summary from Catholic Online:

1. The First Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325) 
This Council, the first Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, was held in order to bring out the true teaching of the Church as opposed by the heresy of Arius. It formally presented the teaching of the Church declaring the divinity of God the Son to be one substance and one nature with that of God the Father. There were twenty canons drawn up, in which the time of celebrating Easter was clarified and a denunciation of the Meletian heresy made, also various matters of discipline or law were dealt with and several decisions advanced. From this Council we have the Nicene Creed.

2.The First Council of Constantinople (A.D. 381) 
Again the true faith was maintained against the Arians. Answer was also given against the Apollinarian and Macedonian heresies. In answering the latter which denied the Godhead of the Holy Spirit, the dogma of the Church was again stated and the words inserted into the Nicene Creed declaring the truth that the Holy Spirit proceeded from both the Father and the Son.

3. The Council of Ephesus (A.D. 431) 
The third General Council of the Church defined the Catholic dogma that the Blessed Virgin is the Mother of God and presented the teaching of the truth of one divine person in Christ. The Council was convened against the heresy of Nestorius.

4. The Council of Chalcedon (A.D. 451) 
Held twenty years after the third General Council, this was to answer the Eutychian or Monophysite heresy and affirm the doctrine of two natures in Christ. This followed as a result of the growing controversy among the early theologians who were being led into error by a confused idea of the one divine person being both God and man or that there are two natures, human and divine, in the one person of the Word.

5. The Second Council of Constantinople (A.D. 553) 
This Council is sometimes referred to as the Council of the Three Chapters because its chief work was to condemn the writings and teaching of Theodore of Mopsuestia, the erroneous portions in the writings of Theodoret, and the letters of Ibas. It reaffirmed the dogmas stated by the third and forth General Councils.

6. The Third Council of Constantinople (A.D. 680) 
This Council gave the definition of two wills in Christ as the true teaching against the Monothelite heresy which claimed only one will.

7. The Second Council of Nicaea (A.D. 757) 
Here was defined the veneration due to holy images, that we give honor only to those they represent and not to the image itself as such; it presented the answer to the image breakers or iconoclasts. It also gave twenty-two canons regarding the clergy.

8. The Forth Council of Constantinople (A.D. 869) 
This was a disciplinary Council to heal the threat of schism which was separating the East and Rome. This was done by deposing the usurper, Photius, and restoring the patriarch, Ignatius. The Greeks finally refused acknowledgment of the Council.

9. The First Council of the Lateran (A.D. 1123) 
The Lateran is the Cathedral Basilica of Rome. This was the first General Council held in the West. It was convened to confirm the peace between the Church and State and to give final settlement to the problem of Investiture between Emperor Henry V and the Holy See. It was agreed that the Church has all rights to choose and consecrate prelates and invest them, and Church goods were restored to the Church.

10. The Second Council of the Lateran (A.D. 1139) 
This Council took disciplinary action and excommunicated Roger of Sicily who championed the anti-pope. Anacletus II, and imposed silence on Arnold of Brescia. Canons against simony, incontinence, breaking the "Truce of God," dueling or group feuding were advanced, and regulations concerning clerical dress were given.

11. The Third Council of the Lateran (A.D. 1179) 
After forty years again the General Council took actions against simony and abuses of the clergy. Also defense of the true teaching was made in answer to the Albigenses and Waldenses.

12. The Forth Council of the Lateran (A.D. 1215) 
Besides disciplinary action the seventy decrees of this Council answered prevailing heresies, gave pronouncements in favor of the Crusades, prescribed the duty of annual confession and Easter Communion, offered additional definitions on the absolute unity of God, and presented definition of the doctrine of the Church regarding sacraments, and in particular that the bread and wine, by transubstantiation, become the Body and Blood of Christ.

13. The First Council of Lyons (A.D. 1245) 
This Council was called to bring disciplinary action against Emperor Frederick II and at the same time sentence of the solemn renewal of excommunication was passed on the emperor.

14. The Second Council of Lyons (A.D. 1274) 
Effort was made at this Council under Pope Gregory X to bring about union between the East and West. It also defined that the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son. The discipline governing the election of the pope was formulated.

15. The Council of Vienne (A.D. 1311 and 1312) 
The purpose of this Council was to settle the affair of the Templars, to advance the rescue of the Holy Land, and to reform abuses in the Church. The doctrinal decrees of the Council were: condemnation that the soul is not "in itself the essentially the form of the human body",; that sanctifying grace is infused into the soul at baptism; and denial that a perfect man is not subject to ecclesiastical and civil law.

16. The Council of Constance (A.D. 1414 - 1418) 
This Council can be regarded as ecumenical only in so far as it was in union with the pope. The heretical teaching of John Huss and Wyclif were answered. It was here that communion to the laity under one species was prescribed as a cure to the make it understood that the entirety of Jesus Christ is present under both or either species. In transubstantiation all of the bread is changed into the body, blood, soul and Divinity of Christ and all of the wine is changed into the body, blood, soul and Divinity of Christ and reception of either species was reception of the total; body, blood, soul and Divinity of Jesus Christ.

17. The Council of Ferrara-Florence (A.D. 1438 - 1439) 
This was convened to unite the Greeks and other oriental sects with the Latin Rite. It was defined that "the Holy Apostolic See and Roman Pontiff hold the primacy over all the world; that the Roman Pontiff is the successor of Peter, prince of the Apostles; that he is the true vicar of Christ, the head of the whole Church, the Father and teacher of all Christians."

18. The Fifth Council of the Lateran (A.D. 1512 - 1517) 
It defined the Pope's authority over all Councils and condemned errors regarding the human soul, namely, that the soul with its intellectual power is mortal.

19. The Council of Trent (opened under Pope Paul III in 1545, continued under Pope Julius III, and concluded under Pope Pius IV (A.D. 1563) 
The doctrine of original sin was defined; the decree on Justification was declared against the Lutheran errors that faith alone justifies and that the merits of Christ; the doctrine of the sacraments of Penance and Extreme Unction was defined; decrees relating to the censorship of books were adopted; the doctrine of Christian marriage was defined and decrees on Purgatory and indulgences adopted. Besides many refutations against the so called reformers were given and measures of true reform advanced.

20. The First Vatican Council (opened under Pope Pius IX in 1869 and adjourned on October 20, 1870)
This General Council was never closed officially, but was suspended. Technically, it continued until it was closed by Pope John XXIII. Of this council the most important decree was that of the primacy of the pope and of papal infallibility.

21. The Second Vatican Council (opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962, it continued under Pope Paul XI until the end in 1965) 
Several important constitutions and decrees were promulgated, the most far reaching being the Constitution on Sacred Liturgy.

Here are other websites where you can read the same 21 Ecumenical Councils

The First Eight Ecumenical Councils:

After Christianity became a legal religion within the Roman Empire under Emperor Constantine (AD 312), the leaders (bishops) of the Christian communities throughout the Mediterranean world could more easily meet to discuss important issues, debate current questions, reject heterodox opinions, and more clearly define their faith. These large meetings of bishops, called "Ecumenical Councils," also produced some of the earliest and most concise statements of belief (called "Creeds"), which are still foundational for the Christian religion. The first eight councils are recognized by most Christians throughout the world today.
#Council Name
/ Location
DatesTeachers and Teachings RejectedOrthodox Doctrines Decreed
# Attend
Influential Leaders
 1 Nicea
Arians: Jesus was divine, but slightly inferior to the Father; Jesus was the first being created in time by God; slogan: "there was a time when he was not."Jesus is divine, "of the same substance" (homo-ousios) as the Father, and was with the Father from the very first moment of creation. Sunday was fixed as the date for celebration of Easter. The "Nicene Creed" was written and adopted.
Emperor Constantine,
Athanasius of Alexandria
2Constantinople I
Apollinarians: divided human & divine parts of Jesus; Arianism also still prominent; and followers of Macedonius said the Holy Spirit was a divine messenger, but not fully God.The teachings of Nicea were confirmed and expanded; the Holy Spirit is also fully divine; thus the Trinity has one divine "nature," but three distinct "persons."
Emperor Theodosius,
Pope Damasus,
Cappadocian Fathers
Nestorians: Mary is the "Mother of Christ," but should not be called the "Mother of God," so that Jesus' humanity is not neglected.Mary is traditionally and properly called the "Mother of God"; Jesus has both a divine and human nature, but united in his one person.
Cyril of Alexandria
Monophysites: Jesus was both human and divine, but he had only "one nature"; his divinity totally replaced his human nature.The earthly Jesus was both fully human and fully divine; his two natures and two wills were perfectly united in his one person.
Pope Leo the Great
5Constantinople II
Various errors of Origen, Theodoret, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Ibas of Edessa.The teachings of the first four Councils, esp. Chalcedon, are reconfirmed
6Constantinople III
Monotheletism: Christ has only one divine "will."Christ has both a human and a divine will.
7Nicea II
Iconoclasm: all images should be destroyedThe veneration of icons and images is permitted.
8Constantinople IV
Photian Schism: defenders vs. detractors of Bishop PhotiusThis council was ultimately unsuccessful; no further councils were held in the East.
Pope Adrian II

The Rest of the 21 Ecumenical Councils:

After tensions had been building for centuries, the "Great Schism" of 1054 led to the separation of Eastern and Western Christians. Orthodox Christians of the East do not accept the legitimacy of any further councils, believing that the Christian faith was sufficiently defined through the decisions and documents of the first eight councils. After a gap of several centuries, however, the bishops of the Western Church continued holding periodic councils to debate new issues, address contemporary problems, promulgate new reforms, and define Christian teachings more precisely:
#Council Name / LocationDatesMain Topics / Results# AttendPresiding Pope(s)
9Lateran I
Ended the practice of Lay Investiture; implemented other reforms; called a crusade.
Callistus II
10Lateran II
Condemned the errors of Arnold of Brescia.
Innocent II
11Lateran III
Condemned the Albigensians and Waldensians; issued other decrees for moral reforms.
Alexander III
12Lateran IV
Again condemned errors of Albigensians and others; issued over 70 decrees for wide-ranging reforms.
Innocent III
13Lyons I
Excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II; called a new crusade.
Innocent IV
14Lyons II
Temporarily reunited the Greek and Roman Churches; set rules for papal elections.
Gregory X
Addressed problems of the Knights Templar, Beguines, other groups;
planned for another crusade and instituted more clerical and educational reforms.
Clement V
Ended the Western Schism; elected Pope Martin V; issued decrees against John Wycliffe & Johan Hus.
Gregory XI
17Basel (& Ferrara& Florence)
Addressed problems in Bohemia; attempted reunion with the Eastern Church.
Eugene IV
18Lateran V
Issued minor disciplinary decrees; planned another crusade against the Turks.
Julius II
& Leo X
Addressed the challenges of Luther and other Reformers;
issued many decrees to define Church doctrine and reform Church discipline.
Paul III, Julius III,
Pius IV
20Vatican I
Three sessions were planned, but only the first was held, due to wars in Europe;
formally defined the infallibility of the Pope when he teaches "ex cathedra."
Pius IX
21Vatican II
Updated the Church for the 20th Century, by rediscovering our roots in Early Christianity;
finished and expanded the agenda of Vatican I, focusing not only on the Pope but on all Christians;
issued 16 documents (4"Constitutions," 9 "Decrees," 3 "Declarations")
up to
& Paul IV
22Vatican III ? or Nairobi I?
20xx ?
Updating the world-wide Church for the 21st Century?

-Read also Catholic Encyclopedia: The 21 Ecumenical Councils

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